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Computer Networking Tutorial

What Is A Computer Network.....?

A network is nothing more than two or more computers connectedby a cable or by a wireless connection so that they can communicate and exchangeinformation or data.

In other words " Network Means a collection of interconnectedcomputer network of stand-alone computer. Commenting on the computer for the exchangeof information. The connection can be over copper, fiber optic, microwave andsatellite communications".

Obviously, computers can exchange information in other wayscalled the sneakernet or FloppyNet. Means that copy a file to a diskette and thenwalk the disk over to some other computer.

You can create a computer network by hooking all the computersin your office together with cables and installing a special network interfacecard (NIC) in each computer so you have a place to plug in the cable. Then youset up your computer’s operating-system software to make the network work.If you don’t want to mess with cables, you can create a wireless networkinstead. In a wireless network, each computer is equipped with a special wirelessnetwork adapter.

Lets start with,

A Simple Network Structure


Above figure shows a simple network with three computers anda Printer. You can see that all devices are connected with network cables to acentral network device called a Network Router. The printer in this network canbe used by all the PCs. Also the figure show you how the Wireless network Works,the Notebook and the Computer connected with the wireless router by wireless adapterswhich equipped with them.

Network Stations: May be terminal, computers, telephones orother communication devices. They are also called HOST\END SYSTEMS. The hostsare connected to communication subnet or subnet. They carry messages from hostand consist of switching elements and transmission lines. Transmission lines arealso called CIRCUITS, CHANNELS, TRUNKS, move bits between the machines.

The switching elements are specialized computers used to connecttwo or more transmission lines. The purpose of the switching element is to chooseoutgoing line and forward the data arriving on an incoming line. All traffic to/fromthe host has to go via its IMP. They are also known as PACKET SWITCHING NODES,INTERMEDIATE SYSTEM OR DATA SWITCHING EXCHANGES.

Subnet is the collection of the communication lines and routersbut not the host. The set of nods to which stations attached is the boundary ofthe communication network. The collection of routers and communication lines movespackets from source host to the destination host.

Network structure can be thought with

-Data terminal equipment (DTE).
-Data circuit terminating Equipment (DCE) concept.

Most digital data processing device have limited data transmission capacityand limited distance of data transmission. DTE is the end user machine, generally refers to (Devices) terminals and computers.

Example: Email terminal, workstation, ATM in a bank, sales terminal in a departmentalstore. They are not commonly connected directly to transmission medium.

DCE is used to connect the communication channel.

Example: modem. It interacts with DTE and provides an interface of DTE to communicationnetwork transmits and receive bits one at a time over the communication channel.

To specify the exact nature of interface between DTE and DCE various standardsand protocols have been developed. DCEs and DTEs are connected in two ways. Ahigh degree of cooperation is essential in DTE-DCE combination, as data and controlinformation is to be exchanged. They can be connected in two ways

-Point to point configuration: Hereonly two DTE devices are in the channel


-Multidrop configuration: Heremore than two devices are connected to the same communication channel.

This will provide the basic technology concepts required forunderstanding networking. The following are the lessons how we categorized ComputerNetwork.

Browse Topics

NetworkingBasics

OSIReference Model

Introduction to TCP/IP

LAN Basics

Understanding Switching

WAN Basics

Understanding Routing

What Is Layer 3 Switching?

Understanding VirtualLANs

Understanding Qualityof Service

Security Basics

Understanding Virtual Private Networks

VoiceTechnology Basics

Network Management Basics TheInternet

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